Professor Tony May has over 50 years' experience in urban transport planning.He has been a professor at Leeds since 1977, where his main research interests have focused on urban transport policy.He has had 15 years’experience in consultancy and 10 years’ experience in city government. He has provided policy advice to the OECD, the European Conference of Ministers of Transport, the World Bank, the International Transport Forum, the US Transportation Research Board, the Singapore Land Transport Authority, the New Zealand Ministry of Transport and the Thailand Commission for Land Transport. His Decision-Makers’ Guidebook for urban transport has been translated into ten languages, and his KonSULT knowledgebase now forms the basis of guidance to European cities. He was elected as a Fellow of the Royal Academy of Engineering in 1995, and awarded the OBE for services to transport engineering in 2004.
The role of new mobility services in sustainable urban transport strategy
A key element in any urban transport strategy will be public transport, which can offer alternatives to car use, and hence improve accessibility and reduce congestion and environmental damage. However, the nature of public transport is changing rapidly with the development of new mobility services.Shared taxis, cars and bikes and demand-responsive buses are able to offer a wider range of mobility options, which may compete with, or extend the range of, conventional buses.New approaches to charging for public transport, collecting fares and providing information can affect the awareness and acceptability of the available options.Mobility as a Service has the potential to offer a simpler, integrated way of choosing, booking and paying for the most appropriate combination of modes for a given journey.
City authorities face two difficulties in incorporating such innovations into their transport strategies.Firstly, there is still very limited information on their performance and the transferability of that performance between contexts.Secondly, most are being offered by third parties who are not in the public sector, are not typically involved in the provision of conventional public transport, and who may wish to compete with, rather than complement, existing services.This introduces challenges for option generation, evaluation and above all governance in the preparation of urban transport strategies. The presentation will review what is known about these new services, suggest an analytical approach to identifying the most appropriate options, and discuss approaches to effective governance.
Professor em., Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) Former President, World Conference on Transport Research Society (WCTRS)
New challenges for integrated transport and land use planning induced by the diffusion of automated vehicles
I will address the traditional issues for integrated planning and then present scenarios for 100% (level 4) automation. Then I will discuss the (positive and negative) impacts on traffic activity and land use. The presentation concludes with a discussion on possible interim stages (level 2 and 3) and the uncertainty about a sustainable development of the transport system if the development is guided only by market forces.
Professor of Operations & Logistics, Vancouver International Airport Authority Chair Professor, University of British Columbia
Impacts of high-speed rail on airports and regional economies
In this speech, I'll provide extensive discussion on how the current findings are relevant to airports and local/regional economies. My discussion involves welfare implication of air-HSR competition and cooperation, taking into account airport congestion, as well as spatial competition among airports in the presence of HSR. At the city level, we discuss territorial connectivity and accessibility impact of HSR infrastructure and its impact on regional development (including economic activities, population and tourism activities). In general, for both airports and regional economies, we examine how HSR may play a role to make an airport or a city better off or worse off. Policy implications for China will be discussed.
Professor of Transportation & Logitstics, Director of Centre for Transportation Studies, University of British Columbia
Measuring Competition Intensity and Product Differentiation: Evidence from the Airline Industry
Measuring the degree of competition in markets is important for setting competition and regulatory policy. Commonly used structural indices, such as the HHI, which assume a correlation between fewness of numbers and the exercise of market power overlook the way in which firms compete and, hence, their price setting in markets. We develop and explore a new horizontal differentiation measure, which encapsulates firms’ portfolio of products and measure the degree of overlap and substitution between their competing services. Such an index can be developed for product, temporal or geographic space. Our empirical test is applied to aviation markets where we measure Schedule Differentiation and we demonstrate the significant importance in explaining price levels and structure. The information captured by the differentiation metric also explains fares across fare percentiles depending on the competing airlines’ business models.
Keywords: airlines, competition, HHI, flight frequency, product differentiationJEL Classification: L13, L93, D22
Professor, National Taiwan University, Chang Jiang Scholars Program of China, Editor in Chief of Transportation Research Part E
Cross-Governmental Policy Uncertainty and Power Asymmetry: Implications for Sustainable Value Chain Coordination in the Belt-and-Road Initiative Context
This presentation aims at the issue of bilateral governmental policy uncertainty and its influence on cross-border sustainable value chain coordination for the case of political power asymmetry in the Belt-and-Road Initiative (BRI) context. In the current research, we propose a comprehensive methodological framework which incorporates the utilization of evolutionary game and sequential game theories into the proposed analytical model. Furthermore, the effects of various bilateral power interaction parameters are taken into account in the modelling and analyses to characterize the influence of bilateral governmental policy uncertainty on cross-border sustainable value chain coordination in the BRI context. It is expected that this presentation can stimulate more researchers to devote themselves to investigating and addressing BRI-related issues, as well as creating more excellent research works for publication in top-tier journals in related fields.
Associate Editor of Transport Policy, Associate Professor in Aviation and Maritime, Institute of Transport and Logistics Studies, University of Sydney
The Effects of On-Time Performance Policy in the Chinese Aviation Market
The Chinese aviation market has sustained double-digital growth for decades. This has placed increasing pressure on the aviation industry and its regulator to sustain good on-time performance. This study aims to measure the effects of congestion and delays, to reveal the business strategies adopted by airlines and airports, and to quantify the effects of government policies. Our empirical investigation of the Chinese aviation industry suggests that simple on-time performance measures for airports and airlines cannot truly reflect management efficiency, as they are significantly affected by routes allocation, slot control policy, and delay propagation effects. Flight delay and airport congestion impose substantial costs to the aviation industry in terms of higher costs and reduced demands. However, airport slot use at industry level is not optimal due to airline frequency competition. Our analysis further concludes that CAAC's on-time regulatory policy introduced in Sep 2017 has substantially reduced flight delays. Even very conservative estimates suggests that the policy brought an (annual) benefit of RMB0.963 billion to passengers arriving at the hub, major and minor slot-coordinated airports. However, in the long term, such a policy may induce excessive airline schedule buffer which will substantially increase airlines' operational costs.
UPS Chair Professor Emeritus, Sauder School of Business, University of British Columbia, Founding Chairman of the Air Transport Research Society (ATRS), Editor-in-Chief of Transport Policy journal
The effects of open skies air service agreements on bilateral passenger flow and service export and import trades
In this paper, we measure the effects of Open Skies Air Services Agreement (OSA) on bilateral passenger flow and service export and import trades for a country. Our service trade data includes ‘commercial’, ‘transportation’, ‘travel’, and ‘government’ services. Using the Canadian data, a reduced-form gravity-type difference-in-differences (DID) regression is conducted to test the Canada’s OSA and US OSA on Canada’s bilateral passenger flow and service trade. A two-stage least squared (2SLS) DID regression is conducted to show that OSA affects service trade through its direct effect on bilateral passenger flow. Our estimations strongly suggest that Canada’s OSA has positive effect on bilateral passenger flow and service export and import trades, especially for the commercial service trade, while US OSA has the negative effect on Canada’s service trades. In addition, our results show that the OSAs have clear lag effects on bilateral passenger flow and service trade. We believe this is the first attempt to quantify effects of OSAs on ‘bilateral service’ exports and imports.
Professor of school of economics and management, Beijing Jiaotong University, majors in transport economic theory and policy and economic time-spatial analysis. He is the first doctor of transportation economics cultivated by China, published hundreds of papers, many books and textbooks. In addition, he was once the academic leader of the national key discipline of industrial economics and the professional construction team of economic characteristics. He taught the national excellent course transportation economics "Transportation Economics" and won the National Teaching Achievement Award.
The Physical-informational Relationship and Time-spatial Economic Analysis of Internet Sharing Travel
This paper discusses the reasons why Internet travel services have made important progress in China from the perspective of time-spatial economy, and explains the significance of big data for physical-informational relationship and structural evolution. It summarizes the economic time-spatial characteristics and development conditions of Internet sharing travel, and analyzes Its impact in the transportation field. It is believed that the Internet travel service uses data technology to improve the experience scene, and promotes the change of the original traffic pattern with the new time-spatial matching model, which provides an important idea for solving the contradiction between traditional intensive traffic supply efficiency and discreet traffic demand. It is believed that the further development of Internet sharing travel depends on continuously exploring user experience scenarios that can continue to enhance in the travel field, and innovation in organization and mechanism.
Professor Jianhong Wu have had 30+ years working experience as a senior manager/researcher and professor mostly in a research institute and a university, with direct experience both as an advisor to governments (central and local) and to railway enterprises on a variety of aspects of railway reform, the commercial operation of railways, the development of Eurasian Land bridge, the CBA of HSR projects in China and so on. Have lead or joined more than 80 research and consultant projects both at international level (UIC, UNESCAP, ADB) and national level. And published more than 80 papers in Chinese or English and an author of 3 books in Chinese. He is also on the editorial board of the Journal of Railway Planning and Management (IE) and China Railways.
The Impact of Freight Transport Modal Shift Policy on China’s Carbon Emission Reduction
With China's economic and social development and the increase mobility, the traffic has increased rapidly, especially for the road transport. Meanwhile, the carbon emissions in China made by the transport energy consumption are becoming one of the most important sources of the global greenhouse effect. Therefore, how to reduce the transport carbon emissions without having significant influence on the economic efficiency and social development is the key to the sustainable development in China. Considering the international experience, the implementation of modal shift policy can reduce the carbon emissions in the transport sector. However, as it happened worldwide, it’s a great challenge to make use of the market forces to achieve modal shift effectively.
This paper first summaries the latest progress and major problems of modal shift policy in China. The comparative analysis of unit energy consumption and unit carbon emissions demonstrates that the mode of road freight transport should be shifted to railway transportation which is more environmentally friendly. In order to study the effect of modal shift on energy saving and emission reduction, the analyses on China’s energy consumption and carbon emissions of the transport sector in 2025 was conducted based on the scenario assumptions analysis. Finally, the suggestions to achieve the efficient modal shift mainly based on the feasible market mechanism instead of one size for all administrative policy are proposed
KEYWORDS：Modal shift; energy consumption; carbon emission reduction; scenario analysis; sustainable development
The research of Professor Zhao Jian on transportation is from economics perspective. One of Zhao’s research areas is the relationship between transportation and economic growth. From 2006 he has published many articles against large scale construction of high speed rail in China. His opinion has been widely cited by domestic media and international media. In his paper published on TRA in 2015, he pointed out, HSR can only be built in the corridor with large populations and high population densities based on a time allocation model with the consideration of VTTS. Large scale construction of HSRs has made great economic loss. Huge investments in HSR has worsened the transport structure. From 2005 to 2016, the freight railway’s market share declined from 50% to 17%, the market share of highway freight transport increased from 21% to 49% in China. Billion tons cargo transported by diesel trucks raise the logistics costs and increase air pollution.
On urban transport study, Zhao Jian think, the serious congestion in large cities are the problem of urban planning, which is the allocation of urban spatial resources. Urban planning, which materialize the right relationships in the roads and urban spatial structure, do not allocate the rights of easy mobility and easy accessibility to public transit but to automobiles in China. The urban spatial structure make many people take automobile as the fast mobility mode and cause traffic congestion.
The institutional barriers of integration of transport and land use in China
China is undergoing a historically unprecedented surge of urbanization and motorization which have led more and more serious traffic congestion and air pollution, especially in large cities. China’s urbanization must be transit-oriented development, must prevent auto-dependent development. While the travel mode choice is the result of rational choice of urban dwellers. The individual trip mode choice is determined by the cost and the trip environments of different travel modes. Integration of transport and land use is a necessary condition toward a transit-oriented development, which can make most people choose public transport. While this kind urban development is confronted with many institutional barriers which involve reallocation rights of urban spatial resources. This paper produce a travel mode choice model to show how spatial rights arrangement determine travel mode choice of individuals, then discuss the institutional barriers of integration of transport and land use in China.
・M.S. Degree, Beijing Jiaotong University, China
・Doctor Degree of Engineering, Kyushu University, Japan
・Senior Researcher, Institution for Transport Policy Studies, Japan
・Chief Researcher, Railway Technical Research Institute, Japan
・Major in Transport Planning & Policy, Rail Transportation, Freight Transport and Logistics.
The Possibility to Construct the Rail-based Logistics System
1.Current situation of freight transport
2.Re-recognition of rail freight
3.Possibility to utilize the railway for modern logistics
4.Issues to construct the rail-based logistics system
Guohua Zhang，the Chief Engineer of the China Center for Urban Development (CCUD) and the President of the Land&Industry&Transportation Planning Institute. Ph.D., Professor, Senior Planner. The social part-time jobs include: Part-Time Professor of Beijing Jiaotong University and Beijing University of Architecture, Expert of China Association of City Planning, Member of Information Society 50 Forum, Member of the Ant Financial Committee, Expert of China Foresight Think Tank, and Expert of One Belt One Road 100. Research interests include: smart city planning, new spatial economic theory and new institutional economic theory, new collaborative planning technology system of “Industry, Land and Transportation”, urban planning of urban agglomeration and national central city, land and space planning system, overall planning and design of the integrated transportation hub, multi-level rail transit system planning, infrastructure investment and financing and other new areas of urbanization.
High quality development and space-time economies: industry, transportation and space
The report of the 19th National Congress puts the industrial transformation and upgrading together with the transportation infrastructure network, which is of great significance. China's economy has shifted from a high-speed growth stage to a high-quality development stage, improving total factor productivity is an urgent requirement for current development. However, it is affected by the impact of three low levels of labor, environment and land use and three high levels of logistics, market transactions, and service industries, China’s international competitiveness is constrained and industrial upgrading is also facing greater pressure, urbanization development path also needs to be transformed. Under this background, the coordinated development of transportation, industry and space is increasingly demanding. The three effects of sharing, matching and learning brought about by industrial space agglomeration have become issues that must be paid attention to in the development of space economy and urbanization. The rational allocation and free flow of supporting factors, strengthening the capacity building of innovation, and embracing the Internet economy are the key concerns of current traffic development. For the future of the global super-map, we must use complex thinking, promote the realization of more efficient organization of industry, space and transportation through reasonable planning, promote the two-way integration of transportation network and the Internet, and provide Chinese wisdom and China solutions to solve world problems.